Last edited by Tunris
Thursday, July 30, 2020 | History

2 edition of Formation of genotoxic xenobiotic metabolites in marine organisms found in the catalog.

Formation of genotoxic xenobiotic metabolites in marine organisms

Jane Wendy Marsh

Formation of genotoxic xenobiotic metabolites in marine organisms

by Jane Wendy Marsh

  • 365 Want to read
  • 31 Currently reading

Published by University of Birmingham in Birmingham .
Written in English


Edition Notes

Thesis (Ph.D) - University of Birmingham, School of Biochemistry, 1992.

Statementby Jane Wendy Marsh.
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL20860652M

Biotransformation is the chemical modification (or modifications) made by an organism on a chemical compound. If this modification ends in mineral compounds like CO 2, NH 4 +, or H 2 O, the biotransformation is called mineralisation.. Biotransformation means chemical alteration of chemicals such as nutrients, amino acids, toxins, and drugs in the is also needed to render non-polar. Introduction. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of industrial chemicals that were mass-produced globally from the late s until their commercial production was banned, initially by the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) in the United States in , as a reaction to increasing numbers of reports of PCBs in humans and concern for adverse human health by:

  There is little information on exposure of marine mammals to genotoxic environmental contaminants. The 32P-postlabeling assay has been successfully used to assess exposure to genotoxic polycyclic aromatic compounds in fish and humans. In the present study, a preliminary investigation showed that polycyclic aromatic compound-like DNA adducts were present in hepatic tissues of Cited by: 6. International Council for the Exploration of the Sea Techniques in Marine Environmental Sciences, 25(). Reichert, W. L., B. L. French, J. E. Stein. Exposure of Marine Mammals to Genotoxic Environmental Contaminants: Application of the 32p-Postlabeling Assay for Measuring DNA-Xenobiotic .

The process is often referred to as metabolism of xenobiotics. As a general rule metabolism converts lipid-soluble xenobiotics to large, watersoluble metabolites that can be effectively excreted. The liver is the main site of biotransformation. All xenobiotics taken up from the intestine are transported to the liver by a single blood vessel.   Energy flows directionally through ecosystems, entering as sunlight for phototrophs or as inorganic molecules for chemoautotrophs. The six most common elements associated with organic molecules—carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, and sulfur—take a variety of chemical forms and may exist for long periods in the atmosphere, on land, in water, or beneath earth’s surface.


Share this book
You might also like
Tutorial--end user facilities in the 1980s

Tutorial--end user facilities in the 1980s

Convenience stores report

Convenience stores report

Savage Splendor

Savage Splendor

tree of hands

tree of hands

Legendary characters of southeast Arizona

Legendary characters of southeast Arizona

Kings Close

Kings Close

Tori and the sleigh of midnight blue

Tori and the sleigh of midnight blue

US History For Christian Schools

US History For Christian Schools

In practice

In practice

Implementation of a Bayesian system for decision analysis in a program of individually prescribed instruction

Implementation of a Bayesian system for decision analysis in a program of individually prescribed instruction

Group-study programs on the social welfare of the community

Group-study programs on the social welfare of the community

M.T. Cicero de oratore

M.T. Cicero de oratore

The three little superpigs

The three little superpigs

The One Hour Purim Primer

The One Hour Purim Primer

Angler effort and harvest of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and coho salmon (O. kisutch) by recreational fisheries in the lower Kenai River fisheries, 1987

Angler effort and harvest of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and coho salmon (O. kisutch) by recreational fisheries in the lower Kenai River fisheries, 1987

Mr Potter and the parrots

Mr Potter and the parrots

Formation of genotoxic xenobiotic metabolites in marine organisms by Jane Wendy Marsh Download PDF EPUB FB2

Phase II is characterized by conjugation reactions, representing the main route of detoxification, increasing the solubility of the xenobiotic.

Metabolites from phase I are converted into conjugate compounds (polar groups), highly soluble in water, such as glucuronides or sulphates, which can accumulate in urine and bile, the main excretion by: In: Khan MAQ, Lech JJ, Menn J J (eds) Pesticide and xenobiotic metabolism in aquatic organisms.

Am Chem Soc Ser 57–75 Google Scholar Malins DC, Myers MS, Roubal WT () Organic free radicals associated with idiopathic liver lesions of English sole (Parophrys vetulus) from polluted marine by: Disposition of xenobiotic chemicals and metabolites in marine organisms.

U Varanasiand J E Stein. Environmental Conservation Division, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Seattle, WA Author Formation of genotoxic xenobiotic metabolites in marine organisms book Copyright and License information.

Copyright notice. This article has been cited byother articles in PMC. Abstract. Studies with several bottom fish species from urban waterways show that of the identified xenobiotic chemicals Cited by: Xenobiotics and their metabolites differ in structure, physico-chemical properties, biological activity, and behaviours in organisms.

The identification of emerging metabolites is essential for the formation of pharmacokinetics, toxicokinetics, and the determination of the toxicity of each xenobiotic in drug testing as well as in toxicological. Biomarkers for genotoxic effects in marine organisms - Project report Report AM/ Our reference: AM / Author(s): Endre Aas1),Renée Katrin Bechmann1), Bodil Katrine Larsen1.

Genotoxic agents have been detected by means of suitable techniques in seawater, sediments, and marine organisms. Several studies have investigated the presence of carcinogen-DNA adducts, DNA damage and repair processes, and cytogenetic alterations, such as chromosomal aberrations, sister-chromatid exchanges, and micronuclei, in tissues of marine by: Xenobiotics have been defined as chemicals to which an organism is exposed that are extrinsic to the normal metabolism of that organism.

There are many types of xenobiotics including but not limited to pharmaceuticals, fumigants, solvents, pesticides, fuels, disinfectants, industrial by-products, venoms, and bacterial by: 1 BIOACTIVE METABOLITES OF MARINE ORGANISMS Terrestrial plants have been used to treat human diseases since the ancient ages.

Studies of the secondary metabolites of terrestrial plants were begun in the ’s1and have proven to be rich sources File Size: KB. Relative Roles of Metabolism and Renal Excretory Mechanisms in Xenobiotic Elimination by Fish sensitive species and life stages of marine organisms.

was being converted into genotoxic. Biotransformation also plays an essential role in the toxicity of many chemicals due to the metabolic formation of toxic metabolites. These may be classified as stable but toxic products, reactive electrophiles, radicals, and reactive oxygen by: The chemicals to which an organism is exposed and which are extrinsic to the metabolism of that organism are referred to as xenobiotics (1).

Xenobiotics that humans are exposed to include a vast. Formation of Genotoxic Nitro-PAH Compounds in Fish Exposed to Ambient Nitrite and PAH Whether marine organisms (e.g., fish) similarly produce endogenous nitrated PAHs (nitro-PAHs) when coexposed to PAHs and reactive The liver was chosen for study because it is the major organ for organic xenobiotic metabolism and biotransformation by: Suggested metabolic pathway of formation of nitrophenanthrenes and some identified metabolites (I,2/3,4/9,10)dihydroxyphenanthrene (m/z ), phenanthrenenitro-1, 2-dihydrodiol-3, 4-epoxide (m.

Ricardo Beiras, in Marine Pollution, Abstract. Biotransformation of organic xenobiotics normally proceed in a first step of oxidation (phase I) that introduces a reactive group in the xenobiotic, and a second step of conjugation (phase II) with a nontoxic endogenous metabolite that yields an excretable product.

Phase I of biotransformation is mediated by inducible cytochrome P dependent monooxygenases (CYP). Metabolism and DNA adduct formation of benzo(a)pyrene and the 7,8-dihydrodiol of benzo(a)pyrene by fish liver enzymes. Pages in M.C. Cooke and A.I. Dennis, editors. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons: fate and effects.

Battelle Press, Columbus, OH. Nishimoto, M. Metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene by English sole, starry flounder, and by: Genotoxic damage, oxidative stress and xenobiotic metabolism changes produced by the exposure of the complex mixture of toluene, chloroform and methylene chloride Article in Toxicology Letters   Xenobiotic metabolism typically involves the enzymatic conversion of readily absorbed lipophilic compounds into hydrophilic products for excretion.

The liver is the major site of these conversions, but relevant biotransformations also occur in the gastrointestinal tract and other tissues (3).Cited by: Phase I enzymes include cytochrome P monooxygenases (CYPs), which compose a superfamily of over 50 genes, and catalyze the formation of highly reactive electrophiles and epoxides, as intermediates in xenobiotic metabolism [12, 13].

Up to 80% of all bioactivations require : Michael Fasullo. @article{osti_, title = {Metabolism of aromatic hydrocarbons in marine organisms}, author = {Malins, D.C.}, abstractNote = {Studies on hydrocarbon metabolism in marine organisms are reviewed with emphasis on the enzyme systems involved and the nature of the products formed.

Some topics discussed are as follows: tissue accumulation and depuration; role of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylases in. The GI microbiota generally deconjugates and reduces the hepatic xenobiotic metabolites, resulting in the formation of non-polar molecules of lower molecular weight, which are readily reabsorbed.

Microbiota-mediated deconjugation of metabolites previously conjugated by the liver may regenerate the original xenobiotic or form new toxic by:. INTRODUCTION Xenobiotics are chemicals not naturally belonging to or originating from a particular organism or an ecosystem.

The term Xenobiotic derived from the GK word “Xenos=Foreigner or Stranger” The body removes xenobiotics by xenobiotic metabolism.metabolites accumulate contaminants present in different concentrations in the environment in their tissues and cells.

[1,23,27,28]. In order to detect genotoxic activity in the aquatic environment, many researchers have conducted cytogenetic studies with fish that answer to xenobiotic in nearly the same way the mammalians [29,30].Author: Ozlem Çakal Arslan, Hatice Parlak. A brief overview of our group’s work on finding novel antioxidants in marine organisms including testing activities of semipurified natural product extracts, identification of active compounds, purification of compounds in greater amounts, as well as how antioxidants can be tested in animals and humans is also by: 6.